One of lxc’s nice time-saving features is that, after initial container creation, it will cache the files it downloaded to do so, and when you create a new container using the same template/version/architecture, it will leverage the existing files and create the container with minimal downloads and really quickly.
A downside of this is that the cache can become stale; this is apparent when you want to install a package in a container and apt-get gives 404 errors indicating the version of the package the container knows about, is no longer available in the archive (most likely superseded by a new one).
This is easily fixed by always doing apt-get update in the container prior to any package installs/upgrades. However, it’s cumbersome, and if you’re creating dozens of new containers every day, the bandwidth and time spent re-downloading can quickly add up.
To update the “base image” or cache, which resides in /var/cache/lxc for each version, you can do two things.
most templates also support –flush-cache so if you’re calling lxc-create directly, just add an extra –flush-cache as template args (after –) and the cache will be flushed before making the container. Something like
Sometimes you may want to configure a wireless interface on a system with Ubuntu Server. The most common use case (for me, at least) is to run some tests with server, which require two network interfaces, on a laptop (it’s what I have available to play with) with an ethernet interface and a wireless interface. As long as Ubuntu sees the wireless interface, it’s quite easy to set things up so the wireless comes up at boot time.
You will probably need to set up the server to forward and masquerade the internal network (usually, the ethernet segment is the internal one, while the wireless counts as the “outside” interface). There are plenty of tutorials to do this over the internet, so I won’t extend this post by detailing that.
Of course, the wireless will grab a dynamic IP address, so use caution with that as the address may change (or, assign a static one from your router’s unused range). Anyway. Put this in /etc/network/interfaces:
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
# The loopback network interface
iface lo inet loopback
iface eth0 inet static
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
Then you can do ifup wlan0 to bring the interface up. It should also come up automagically at boot time.
As part of the team that maintains several testing tools for Ubuntu, including checkbox, I sometimes find myself needing to build .deb packages from our source tree.
A simple way of achieving this is of course to run dpkg-buildpackage or even bzr-buildpackage. Assuming all build-deps are correctly installed in the host system, this will result in a nicely built set of .debs.
This approach has a few caveats, in that it’s different from the build process actually employed to create the packages that ultimately get uploaded to Ubuntu (or even the ones available in Launchpad PPAs).
The two main differences are that Launchpad builds the packages in a “clean” environment, installing build-deps from scratch, whereas dpkg-buildpackage will rely on what’s installed in the system. So if you miss specifying a build-dep, your local build may work because you have it installed, but the PPA build will fail because it will not be present.
The second big difference is that with the local approach, you’re “limited” to building packages for the “host” system. Sure, you can specify a different target release in your debian/changelog file, but some aspect of your build may be tied to your system’s tools, versions and layout, and if for some reason they don’t match the actual target at installation time, things will fail in interesting ways.
Clearly, one way to test what the Launchpad build process will spit out is to build a source package and dput that to be built directly on a PPA. The problem here is that the feedback loop becomes excruciatingly slow; PPAs are a shared resource and build times can go from minutes to many hours.
Based on all this, it makes sense to try to use a local build environment that more closely replicates what PPAs do to build your packages.
Fortunately, the PPA builders use free software, so it’s relatively easy to do local builds in a similar environment, completing quickly due to use of local resources, and only upload to Launchpad once you’re pretty sure your build will succeed.
The software in question is sbuild, and I already wrote a post detailing how to install sbuild and set up a build environment for any Ubuntu release you need.
This setup worked fine for the occasional package build when you know packaging is mostly correct. For a fast build such as checkbox, setting up the build environment with all needed packages and build-deps takes about 10 minutes (depending mostly on download speed for all the packages). Of course on a more complex package, compilation time may start to be a factor.
Anyway, the 10-minute time can be too slow if you’re trying to fix a tricky problem and need a fast feedback loop. Plus the process produces a lot of transient files and downloads a set of packages many times, so there’s plenty of room for improvement here.
Speeding up local package installation and build
A large part of the time spent doing the “local” part of the process is writing files to disk. One way to speed this up is to use a ramdisk to store the build. I’m too lazy and have too little RAM to use this approach, so the alternative was setting up eatmydata inside the chroot. Since these are mostly temporary files or throwaway packages, it’s OK to lose the safety of constant syncs in exchange for a huge boost in speed.
The setup for eatmydata inside the chroot is described here. This looks a bit hard to automate, but luckily we don’t have to, as recent versions of mk-sbuild simply support a –eatmydata parameter, if given this will install eatmydata inside the chroot and do the choot config file change to enable eatmydata.
You can add a custom PPA to an image. Once the chroot image is built, enter the “golden master”:
You can add a deb line (get it from launchpad) to your sources:
# Copy line here
Then you need to get the GPG key for the PPA and add it manually with the very basic tools provided in the chroot (sorry, no apt-add-repository):
# Paste GPG armored key here
Then exit the golden image. After this, your builds from this chroot will be able to fetch packages from the PPA.
Again, that’s a bit of work to do for each VM. Instead, what I did was create a file in /etc/schroot/setup.d to do this automatically. You can of course replace the PPAs you need in the echo lines at the end. Name the file something like 81add-ppas:
Notice that again, I was very lazy and instead of downloading the gpg keys as shown above (as for some reason trying to run gpg from the setup script didn’t work), I just configured apt to allow unauthenticated packages. Since this sbuild is mainly for testing purposes it’s not a big deal to skip this verification step. Also, there’s some logic to automatically detect the chroot release, so the same config file works equally well for any Ubuntu release.
As the name suggests, this nifty utility will cache packages so the next time you need them they’ll be fetched from local storage rather than from the network. A bit of config is needed to have sbuild download packages from here.
First, install apt-cacher-ng on the host system. You can verify it’s listening on port 3142 by any means you like.
Then, to set it up automatically in chroots, add this to the host system’s /etc/schroot/setup.d/80apt-cacher-ng (rather, create that file; it doesn’t exist by default):
It looks like they’re about 3 times faster, but that’s misleading because I deliberately chose a small, quick-to-compile package. Still, you can at least reduce network and disk access very easily now. Note, also, that my test system has a fast SSD. Speedup on a traditional rotary magnetic hard-disk is likely to be much higher.
In late 2010, as I was starting a new job, I bought a new laptop, a Samsung QX410, based largely on this review.
From the beginning I was quite happy with that laptop: the screen is decent, the keyboard spacious and comfortable, battery life is OK, and in retrospective it’s a solidly-built laptop that stood up to 2.5 years of heavy daily use.
However, eventually the time came for it to die, so in late 2013 I had to start looking for replacements. Since I still needed to work, I borrowed a Lenovo Thinkpad T520 to use temporarily. Spec-wise it was similar to the Samsung, save for the larger 15″ screen and the thing that really spoiled me, the excellent Lenovo laptop keyboard. Alas, this appears to have been lost in the latest generation; I had a chance to try a Thinkpad X240 (one of the candidates for replacing the Samsung) and found the island-style keyboard odd and uncomfortable.
At the same time I was able to use a Dell XPS 13 for a few days, and the keyboard on that little machine felt extremely comfortable and close to the Samsung’s (which I’m already used to). So the XPS 13 immediately moved to the top of the list. In early 2014 I finally pulled the trigger and got the Developer Edition XPS 13. The Developer Edition is the result of the “Sputnik Project” and has been available for all previous XPS 13 generations. Here are my impressions of it.
The XPS 13 is somewhat of a MacBook Air lookalike with the same slim wedgy shape. While the footprint is a bit smaller than the 13-inch Air, they look very similar from a top view. The XPS’s top lid and frame are machined aluminum, though the similarity ends there, as the keyboard and deck are coated with black soft-touch rubber, and the bottom is black carbon fiber. The XPS is different enough to qualify as “inspired by”, rather than “knockoff of”.
Incidentally, the MacBook air was also on my list of candidate laptops. The XPS 13 beat it for a couple of reasons. The screen is higher-resolution and touch-enabled, it’s Ubuntu-certified and available with Ubuntu preinstalled, and it has a PC keyboard. Apple keyboards are great but I just can’t get used to the ctrl-alt-cmd layout and always keep hitting the wrong keys. Also, for a comparable configuration, cost was similar. So in the end the XPS 13 won.
The XPS 13 is really thin, as befits a 13-inch ultrabook, and has the typical front taper to a 6-mm thinness.
The thing weighs about 1.4 kg. Since it’s so tiny it actually feels heavy for the size, but it’s by no means heavy. Carry it in a backpack and you’ll barely feel it’s there. Quite a difference from the 2.25-kg Samsung and the 2.5-kg Thinkpad T520, which looks and feels like a behemoth next to the XPS (A nostalgia shot of those laptops next to the XPS is at the end of this post).
To give an idea of the XPS’s dimensions I made a quick photo shoot next to some comparable pre-ultrabook ultraportables.
Top row shows a Dell Vostro V13 and an Acer Aspire One netbook (11″ screen). Bottom row includes the XPS 13 and the legendary Thinkpad X201 with 12″ screen. Despite having a 13″ screen, the XPS is smaller than the Thinkpad X201 and the V13. Footprint-wise, the screen is the limiting factor, so for a 13″-class system it’s reasonable to not see a huge difference.
The side view is where the XPS 13’s thinness becomes evident. The XPS 13 is on top, above the X201 and with the V13 at the very bottom.
The V13 was a tremendously thin machine for its generation, which shows in the fact that it’s almost as thin as the XPS 13’s rear. Of course, the XPS 13’s taper at the front is goes on to be about as thin as the V13’s screen. The V13 made performance compromises to fit in such a svelte chassis, but in all honesty the XPS 13 is also not a speed demon and also has fewer ports and expandability than other bulkier options.
The X201 isn’t even in the same league here; comparing the thickest parts (rear end) it’s almost 3 times thicker than the XPS 13. The X201 is still quite light, about 200g heavier than the X201, the chassis is incredibly sturdy (XPS 13 doesn’t feel flimsy at all but I’d hesitate to put it through the kind of abuse a Thinkpad is known to just shrug off), and it has a lot more expandability, in the form of more USB ports, an expresscard slot, a media card reader, ethernet and modem ports, and incredibly, a full VGA connector.
By comparison and list of ports, the XPS 13 only has a combo audio jack, 2 USB 3.0 ports, and a mini-DP port for external video. This is the price one pays for ultraportability…
In the following paragraphs I posted pictures of the XPS 13, open, next to the V13 and the X201. The keyboard looks minimalistic in comparison but it’s quite comfortable to use. The V13’s is not as nice, while the X201 has that fantastic Lenovo keyboard.
Keyboard and touchpad
The XPS 13’s keyboard has no extraneous dedicated keys, other than the power and mute buttons; everything else is handled by the standard keys, with F-keys doubling as special-function keys to switch monitors, control wireless, show battery information, control volume and brightness as well as keyboard backlight, and perform media control functions.
All standard keys are standard-sized and in their proper positions. Exceptions are the half-size F-keys, including insert and delete, and the cursor keys. One thing I don’t like is lack of dedicated page-up and page-down keys; these are handled (along with home and end) by the cursor keys in combination with Fn. I use pg-up and pg-down extensively to switch tabs in Firefox and this is really a sore point for me. But that’s about the only tradeoff this excellent keyboard makes.
The touchpad seems to be a synaptics model, one of those “buttonless” trackpads, although it does have distinct clicklable sections at the bottom. Unlike the Samsung’s touchpad which was very troublesome and only worked in tap-to-click mode, this touchpad’s clickable buttons also work perfectly, so you’re free to click or two-finger-tap anywhere, or use the “discrete” buttons if you like, which makes things like dragging much easier.
A backlit keyboard is nice to have, but when the light is on, an annoying high-pitched whine comes from underneath the keyboard. This problem has been reported to Dell by many users and is still awaiting a fix or response. As a result, I usually keep the backlight off.
Both the laptops I’ve been using lately had non-IPS panels with industry-standard resolutions for the time. 1366×768 for the Samsung is pretty typical. One gripe I had is that the Samsung’s screen was “protected” by a glossy sheet of cheap plastic that with time became very scratched and made the screen harder to see. This can be seen in the picture at the end of this post.
The XPS 13’s screen is stunning by comparison, if only because it’s a much newer panel. Viewing angles are amazing, the 1920×1080 resolution is razor-sharp and crisp (and even a bit too high for the screen size), and the backlight is strong enough to overcome the gorilla glass cover’s gloss. At least I expect it won’t get scratched easily. This is a Synaptics touchscreen which has worked very well with Ubuntu, although I haven’t used it all that much because it feels very alien to my workflow.
Performance and battery life
I’m ill-equipped to provide an assessment here, as the jump from the pre-Sandy Bridge Samsung to the Haswell XPS 13 (plus a bump from i5 to i7 CPU) is so enormous that this machine just feels like it flies. One thing worth mentioning is that, while the Samsung had a standard mobile CPU (i5 480M with 3M cache and 35W TDP), the XPS 13 has the aforementioned, newer i7 with 4 MB cache, but in a low-TDP (only 15W), ULV variant. So by its ultraportable nature it’s on the lower side of the specs spectrum, however the generational advantage plus i7-ness really do make a difference and the system is snappy at all times.
Perhaps the biggest leap forward is the LiteOn SSD. While not hooked up directly to PCIe like a MacBook’s, this mSATA drive is absurdly fast in comparison to what I’d been using, resulting in a 3-second boot time (even with disk encryption), way faster than the 20-30 seconds I was getting on the Samsung.
Under moderate load (a few terminal windows open where I’m typing stuff, plus a browser with a some tabs, one of which is playing a Youtube video), the XPS 13 reports a battery lifetime of about 6 hours. For comparison, the Samsung lasted about 3 hours with a comparable workload on a 66Wh battery.
Given a mostly-idle workload (browser with static content plus a few terminal windows), the XPS 13 reports about 8 hours of battery life.
Perhaps the nicest thing about the XPS 13 is that it’s certified for Ubuntu, and the Developer Edition I got comes preinstalled with Ubuntu 12.04, augmented by some OEM-specific tweaks to ensure all the hardware works correctly. Indeed everything works out of the box, and the first-boot experience is very smooth and polished, definitely less cumbersome than booting a Windows machine for the first time.
In case it’s needed, a utility to create a recovery disk is provided. I created a USB stick which can be used to quickly restore the machine to factory status. I then proceeded to erase the preinstalled Ubuntu version and install the latest development release (which will be released as Ubuntu 14.04). Don’t get me wrong, the preinstall is perfectly usable for 99% of people as it has a typical Ubuntu installation with all the usual tools, receives security and browser upgrades until 2017, and even includes a plethora of cloud software development tools such as Juju and Virtualbox (this is why it’s called a “Developer edition” and is focused on cloud development). However, because of my work, I really wanted to have the newest possible Ubuntu version. An ulterior motive was to verify whether the OEM-specific tweaks in the preinstalled version were “upstreamed” and made available in subsequent Ubuntu versions. This is a policy for the Ubuntu certification program; whenever possible, the work done when enabling a new machine is made available in the following stock Ubuntu release.
With a couple of exceptions, everything continued to work just as it did with the preinstalled version, and I was able to recreate a working environment complete with a transfer of my backup in only a few minutes. The fast SSD and USB3.0 transfers from my backup drive are partly to thank for this.
As exceptions, the touchpad didn’t get recognized and required blacklisting an i2c-hid module; and I lost the media control keys (which I seldom use, so I haven’t bothered to re-enable them).
This makes it a great alternative for regions where the Developer Edition is unavailable; just procure the Windows version of this laptop and installing the latest Ubuntu will result in a working system.
Here’s a quick overview of the things I didn’t like about the XPS 13. Of course, none of them were deal-breakers for me, but I wanted to sum them up to highlight the fact that yes, it’s not a perfect machine.
Whining electrical noise (a defect, so once Dell confirms this is fixable I’ll apply for warranty service).
Lack of dedicated pgup/pgdn keys.
Screen a bit too glossy.
a dearth of ports.
Screen resolution too high for my poor, tired eyes (I’m half-kidding with this one).
To sum up, despite the above, I very highly recommend the XPS 13 Developer Edition. In addition to the sleek and solid hardware, you get Ubuntu preinstalled which will cover 99% of people’s needs, a system which benefits from the upstreamed enablement work resulting in an excellent platform to run the latest Ubuntu, *and* you send the message that Ubuntu preinstalls are desired by users, all while freeing yourself from the Microsoft tax which has plagued Linux laptop users for so long.
Projects on github will show a README or README.md file directly on the project page. This is a good place to give some introduction or quick instructions for your project. This supports Markdown, which allows you to craft a README that will both be readable when seen in plain text, and will render nicely when seen directly in github.
Two useful tidbits. To render a markdown document to HTML, for previewing so you don’t have to upload stuff to github just to see what your README will look like,
apt-get install python-markdown
and then run
on your README.md.
Also, vim supports markdown and will do its best to help you, but one unhelpful thing is its insistence to render underscores (_) in inverted text (as it assumes it’s the beginning of an underlined section). Just a warning 🙂
You’re probably familiar with whatismyip services. One problem with these is that they wrap the IP data in a visually-pleasing but impossible to parse smorgasboard of HTML.
I needed to determine external IP for a text-only host with somewhat limited tools, and I came across the wonderful ifconfig.me page. This basically does the same as whatismyip but with lightweight and easily parsable output. This, for instance, returns *only* the system’s external or public IP address:
Several endpoints are provided for you to poke at your connection’s externally-visible information. For the ultimate in parsability and machine-readability, a complete json dump is provided here: http://ifconfig.me/all.json.
Recently I’ve had better success with http://ifconfig.co which works mostly similarly to ifconfig.me but is a bit faster.
Most of us have wanted, at some time or another, to share an entire “session” on the terminal. I mean showing a log of the commands we typed, their output, and so on, to illustrate a procedure or clarify a concept.
The “script” command has long been a tool of choice for this. To use it, just type:
this will seem to start a new shell process and start recording everything you type and everything that other commands output in response. To stop recording, just type “exit”. A file called typescript will be created with your session. If you want, you can call script with a parameter (script your-file.log) to log to that file instead.
A newer implementation of the concept is ttyrec. It behaves mostly the same as script, but instead of producing openable text files, it logs keystrokes and timing information. You need to play these back using ttyplay, but the result is pretty amazing because you can see the keystrokes being played back as they were typed. You can also instruct ttyplay to just dump the session to a plain text file, which mimics script’s behavior.
Finally, to take this concept one step further, have a look at showterm, which does essentially the same as ttyrec but automatically saves and uploads the session to a website for you to share with people. Think of it as an interactive pastebin.
Virtual machines are very useful for testing. I often use them to verify changes to software, without messing up the local environment. Due to laziness I use VirtualBox and install Ubuntu official ISOs on them, rather than something more elegant/complicated such as kvm, lxc containers or chroots. This replicates an actual desktop environment pretty closely so is ideal for reporting bugs and validating that fixes to software work as expected.
Taking a virtual machine to a point where it’s mostly usable is a bit involved. I launched the desktop ISO, did the manual install procedure, rebooted, installed the VirtualBox extensions so I could mount the host’s drives, did some group changes, rebooted again… this is getting a bit tiring!
I had a quick look at Vagrant to see if it could somehow ease the task. It’s very interesting but didn’t really work in this case, as the virtual machine still has to be set up the way I describe before being able to package and then use it. What I’m after, really, is a way to set up a VM from scratch, just by doing the installation and adding a few extra packages.
This is what preseeding does, but up until now I had only played with local preseeds, baked into the ISO image. I imagined being able to load a preseed from the network would be difficult to set up quickly, and on a personal workstation, which is what would best fit my use case.
Turns out that virtualbox and a simple python module make this very easy. With the default configuration (NAT networking), a virtualbox VM will get an IP address through DHCP, and it will be able to reach the host’s public IP address. So as long as we configure the Ubuntu installer correctly and have something serving that file, things are very easy. One of the parts I like about this is that experimenting with this is as easy as changing the local preseed and rebooting the VM. About the only cumbersome part is typing the kernel parameters every time, but since there’s only three of them to type/change, this is not as bad as it sounds.
Put your preseed files in a directory (called, for instance, preseed.cfg).
Change to this directory and run python -m SimpleHTTPServer. This starts a miniature HTTP Server on port 8000.
If you like, verify that the preseed is served properly: wget http://:8000/preseed.cfg
Set up the virtual machine, point it to the Ubuntu installation CD, start it.
When you get the keyboard and human icon, press any key.
Move to “install Ubuntu” but don’t press Enter.
Press F6 to access the “advanced mode”. At this point we’re modifying the kernel command line.
Go to the beginning, delete the “file=” portion.
Add “auto url=http://:8000/preseed.cfg”.
Replace “only-ubiquity” with “automatic-ubiquity”.
Sit back and relax while the virtual machine gets installed.
This fits the bill perfectly for me, it removes the manual steps in setting up a testing VM (which I don’t need to keep afterwards, so I can just delete it and recreate with the same procedure), allows for easy experimentation and customization, and doesn’t use a lot of strange technologies or components.
Here’s a link to a sample, basic preseed file. You can customize mainly the late_command (rather, the success_command for ubiquity) and anything else you like. The installation-guide-amd64 package has more details and sample preseed files.
Note that for server installations the kernel command line will be a bit different:
No need to add automatic-ubiquity.
You DO need to add the “auto url=blahblah” part.
For it to be 100% automated, you need to specify a few parameters that in debian-installer are requested *before* the preseed is loaded. Add these: debconf/priority=critical locale=en_US console-setup/ask_detect=false console-setup/layoutcode=us netcfg/choose_interface=auto
Note that for debian-installer, the late_command is used as opposed to the ubiquity/success_command.
Another example. This uses time to calculate elapsed time, also nice and ionice to try to reduce impact on system resources. It forces downsampling to two audio channels (-ac 2), useful if the source audio stream is in e.g. 5.1 format.
A final example which forces a specific aspect ratio. The source video had the correct pixel dimensions but a bad aspect ratio was encoded in the original file (and was carried over to the recoded one), making it look squished.
Usually when I needed to paste stuff from a text file into a GUI program (most commonly, the browser), I resorted to opening the text file in gedit and copying/pasting from there. Using the X clipboard by selecting text with the mouse kinda worked, but it’s subject to Vim’s visual representation of the text, which may include unwanted display-related breaks. So using gedit was the easiest, but also awfully kludgy solution.
I did some research and learned that vim does have direct access to the X clipboard. I tried the commands they mention (basically “+y to yank selected text, then I tried to paste in a GUI application; or “+p to paste from the current X clipboard). They didn’t work. My installed version of Vim in Ubuntu lacked the xterm_clipboard setting. I was in despair!
Then I came across this bug report in Launchpad. Upon reading it I realized that it was as simple as installing vim-gtk. I had never considered this, as it includes a graphical Vim version which I have absolutely no use for. However the bug report mentions that it also includes a text version of vim compiled with X clipboard support. So I installed, fired up Vim, and the feature works well!
I can now have a buffer with long lines, with :set wrap and :set linebreak, which would be afwul if I cut/pasted it with the mouse. I can select text using vim commands and just yank it into the + register, and it’s instantly available in the X clipboard. Bliss!
A la hora de votar acuérdense de cómo en los dos últimos sexenios (PAN) simplemente el dinero se tira a la basura, con resultados enteramente dudosos (Estela de Luz, sede del Senado) o de plano sin absolutamente nada qué mostrar (RENAUT, simplemente se va a “destruir la base de datos”, es decir que el gasto se hizo y no se tiene ningún producto como reusltado).
Recuerden cómo los panistas dijeron que la manera de eficientar al gobierno era manejarlo como una “empresa” y enfocarse en costo-beneficio, eficiencia y otras “medidas”. Ahora piensen lo que les pasaría a ustedes si toman el dinero de su empresa y lo QUEMAN simplemente. Ninguna empresa puede aguantar así, y ningún ejecutivo que hiciera eso conservaría su trabajo.
Josefina Vázquez Mota, afirmó que cuando ve a otro aspirante que nombra a su gabinete, pienso que suman como mil 500 años de edad, y que al observar cómo en otro partido se integra a su consejo político a ex gobernadores, algunos con historias terribles, pienso que suman como mil 500 años de prisión.
Acuérdense de estos comentarios a la hora de ir a votar, acuérdense de cómo desprecia a la gente simplemente por su edad, cómo para ella la experiencia no vale nada, y piensen si así descalifica y menosprecia a sus colegas políticos, ¿qué hará con los planes de apoyo a la tercera edad?.